Shiawassee Amateur Radio Association ~ W8QQQ
Whiskey 8 Quack Quack Quack
James P. Capitan Center, Lower Level; 149 E. Corunna Ave.; Corunna, MI 48817
Our ham station is located in Grid Square EN72wx at the EOC Center for James P. Capitan Center, Lower Level.
Latitude: 42.9819 N Longitude: 84.1164 W Alitude: 760 ft

Current Site Path: SARA HomeSARA's Reference Page SARA's Electronics Reference
Page Navigation:
Frequency, Wavelength & Bands
 Ohm's Law
 Capacitance
 Inductance
 Resonance
SARA's Electronics Reference Page
Shiawassee Amateur Radio Association presents Electronical Reference Information which we hope is useful to our viewers. Here is a very basic discussion of: Frequency and Wavelength; Ohm's Law; Capactiance & Inductance which includes Reactance; and Resonance. These "basics" require an understanding to move forward in electronics and Ham radio.
We also have a Mathematics Reference page ~ Mathematics Reference Page to assist with some of the math.
Frequency, Wavelength & Bands
The speed of light is the constant rate of propagation of electromagnetic waves. Using the value in atmospheric environment (air) propagation at a frequency can be ratioed to determine the length cooresponding to one complete wave. Further, a 'rounded / approximate' value for the speed of light is 300,000,000 which is generally used for establishing radio frequency band limits. Thus "Lamda" (wavelength) is speed of light [c] divided by frequency in hertz [Hz]. The unit of hertz is named after Henrich Rudolf Hertz [1857 ~ 1894] and is defined as one cycle per second. Wavelength for a given frequency or frequency for a given wavelength are represented as: {using c=300,000,000 }
or
A band is a small section of the spectrum of radio communication frequencies, in which subdivisions are defined by various regulations.
To prevent interference and allow for efficient use of the radio spectrum, similar types of services are allocated into the various bands. For example, broadcasting, mobile radio, or navigation devices, will be usually allocated in nonoverlapping ranges of frequencies. As a matter of convention, bands are divided at wavelengths of 10^n metres, or frequencies of 3 x 10^n hertz { 10^n is in integer powers of 10 }. For example, 30 MHz or 10 m divides shortwave (lower and longer) from VHF (shorter and higher). Further use has officially named the various bands as:
Band Name  Abbreviation  ITU Band  Frequency  Wavelength 

Extremely Low Frequency  ELF  1  3  30 Hz  100,000 km  10,000 km 
Super Low Frequency  SLF  2  30  300 Hz  10,000 km  1,000 km 
Ultra Low Frequency  ULF  3  300  3000 Hz  1,000 km  100 km 
Very Low Frequency  VLF  4  3 kHz  30 kHz  100 km  10 km 
Low Frequency  LF  5  30 kHz  300 kHz  10 km  1 km 
Medium Frequency  MF  6  300 kHz  3000 kHz  1 km  100 m 
High Frequency  HF  7  3 MHz  30 MHz  100 m  10 m 
Very High Frequency  VHF  8  30 MHz  300 MHz  10 m  1 m 
Ultra High Frequency  UHF  9  300 MHz  3000 MHz  1 m  100 mm 
Super High Frequency  SHF  10  3 GHz  30 GHz  100 mm  10 mm 
Extremely High Frequency  EHF  11  30 GHz  300 GHz  10 mm  1 mm 
Ohm's Law
An electrical circuit has a power source with voltage and current, some external circuit attached to the power source with electrical conductors. A direct current source has 'steady state' electrical characteristics. The external circuit restricts the current to a value based on the voltage and the amount of restriction. Under these steady values, the restriction to current flow (charge motion) is identified by the term resistance [R]. The electromotive force [E] or electric potential is called voltage. The charge motion is called electrical current [I]. The relationship between these characteristics was developed by Georg Ohm [1789~1854] and is called "Ohm's Law". The relationship is expressed as:
or or
Electrical power [watts] is the product of voltage [ E } and current [ I ]. It follows that there are relationships for power using just voltage or current and the resistance values. They are:
or or
Capacitance
For purposes here we are defining capacitance as the storage of electrical charge between two metal surfaces. They are separated by a distance with an insulating material which is between the metal surfaces (the dielectric). The capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area and inversely proportional to the spacing distance. The permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates establishs the capacitance value. Using dry, atmospheric pressure air as a 'base material', which is defined as having permittivity of 1.0, different materials can be classified as modifying the actual capacitance (the area/spacing values get multiplied by the capacitance). For many materials the permittivty is independent of the voltage, thus only a direct multiply is required. Restating: "The capacitance is a function only of the geometry of the design (area of the plates and the distance between them) and the permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates of the capacitor." If the charges on the plates are +q and q, and V they establish the voltage between the plates. Capacitance [C] is then defined and by:
which gives the voltage/current relationship
The SI unit of capacitance is the farad (symbol: F), named after the English physicist Michael Faraday. A 1 farad capacitor, when charged with 1 coulomb of electrical charge, has a potential difference of 1 volt.
The energy stored in a capacitor is found by integrating the work W:
The most common subunits of capacitance in use today are the microfarad (μF), nanofarad (nF), picofarad (pF). Capacitance can be calculated if the geometry of the conductors and the dielectric properties of the insulator between the conductors are known.
where:
C is the capacitance, in farads;
A is the area of overlap of the two plates, in square meters;
εr is the relative static permittivity (sometimes called the dielectric constant) of the material between the plates (for a vacuum, εr = 1);
ε0 is the electric constant (ε0 ~ 8.854 x 10^12 F / m) (Farads per meter) and
d is the separation between the plates, in meters;
Capacitance can vary with applied voltage and/or frequency but these topics are beyond this discussion. If desired go to www.wikipedia.com and search "capacitance" for further details in this area. Also, there are formulas for various shaped plate capacitors and other details that you can review.
The electric constant or vacuum permittivity or permittivity of free space is the capability of a vacuum to permit electric field lines and relates the units for electric charge to mechanical quantities such as length and force. Historically, the parameter ε0 has been known by many different names. The terms "vacuum permittivity" or its variants, such as "permittivity in/of vacuum", "permittivity of empty space", or "permittivity of free space" are generally widespread. Standards Organizations worldwide now use "electric constant" as a uniform term for this quantity.
Capacitive Reactance
An opposition to the change in voltage across a capacitive device is defined as Capacitive Reactance. Capacitive Reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency and the capacitance. As either the capacitance or frequency get larger, the reactance value gets smaller. Reactance acts like a "resistance value" when applied voltage varies at a frequency [AC]. At low frequencies a capacitor is an open circuit so no current effects flow in or through the dielectric space.
A DC voltage applied across a capacitor causes positive charge to accumulate on one side and negative charge to accumulate on the other side; the electric field due to the accumulated charge is the source of the opposition to the current. When the potential associated with the charge exactly balances the applied voltage, the current goes to zero.
A capacitor driven by an AC supply only accumulates a limited amount of charge before the voltage changes polarity and the charge dissipates. The higher the frequency, the less charge will accumulate and the smaller the opposition to the current (reactance).
Reactance and resistance have similar effects and similarity of the mathematics results, thus making it easier for you to remember the equations involved. There is a choice on mathematical signs in various equations (more advanced concepts can get involved). For our purposes, it easiest to assume capacitive reactance has a negative value  so that is what we will do! {Later we will define inductive reactance as a 'positive'}
A DC voltage applied across a capacitor causes positive charge to accumulate on one side and negative charge to accumulate on the other side; the electric field due to the accumulated charge is the source of the opposition to the current. When the potential associated with the charge exactly balances the applied voltage, the current goes to zero.
Capacitive reactance, when we get involved with inductive reactance, is where all the fun gets started ~ stay tuned! [pun intended]. That introduces the concept of resonance.
Inductance
The following is a direct quote from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
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In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in current flowing through it induces an electromotive force in both the conductor itself and in any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.
These effects are derived from two fundamental observations of physics: a steady current creates a steady magnetic field described by Oersted's law, and a timevarying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in nearby conductors, which is described by Faraday's law of induction. According to Lenz's law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current (selfinductance). The varying field in this circuit may also induce an e.m.f. in neighbouring circuits (mutual inductance).
The term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1886. It is customary to use the symbol L for inductance, in honour of the physicist Heinrich Lenz. In the SI system, the measurement unit for inductance is the henry with the unit symbol H, named in honor of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, but not before, Faraday.
= = = = = = = End quote = = = = = =
An Inductor is a component used to add inductance to an electrical circuit. A conductor in a closed loop develops the magnetic field concentration and linkages to nearby conductors (including itself) to cause the effect of inductance. This field devlops a "back EMF" across the inductor that impacts the rate of change of the current through the inductor(s). This impact is directly proportional to the frequency. The relationship between the selfinductance L of an electrical circuit, the voltage v(t), and the current i(t) through the circuit is:
When a change in one inductor induces a voltage in another inductor it is called "mutual inductance". This could be a wanted or unwanted effect. In the case of transformers it is considered a wanted effect.
where:
is the mutual inductance, and the subscript specifies the relationship of the voltage induced in coil 2 due to the current in coil 1.
N1 is the number of turns in coil 1,
N2 is the number of turns in coil 2,
P21 is the permeance of the space occupied by the flux.
The complete study of inductance versus physical shape(s) and various mutual inductance relationships is beyond this dialog. You can research these on you own time and pace. We will go on to Inductive Reactance and then to resonance effects.
Inductive Reactance
An opposition to the change in current thru an inductor is defined as Inductive Reactance. Inductive Reactance is directly proportional to the frequency and the inductance value. As either the inductance or frequency get larger, the reactance value gets larger. Reactance acts like a "resistance value" when the applied current varies at a frequency [AC]. At high frequencies an inductor starts to have very large value of reactance {oppostion to current flow}. The equation for calculating inductive reactance is:
Of note between the capacitive and inductive reactance is that one gets smaller and one gets larger as frequency is increased. Or, the reactances 'switch' characteristics as the frequency gets lower. That starts to imply a topic whish is our next topic ~ Resonance. In electronics this where the magic starts to happen.
Resonance
At the 'middle frequency range' for reactances, say the frequency is equal and we rearrange the equations and set inductive and capacitive reactance equal and then solve for frequency. The equation for "resonance" can be derived as:
Omega, ω = 2πf is a very common substitution in many physical or electronic mathematical operations. Setting reactances to equal values means that ωL = 1/ωC, so the equation above results. Recognize that these are inductance and capacitance and not reactance values. If you solve each reactance equation for 2πf and set them equal to each other, the above equation can easily be seen.
If one considers the real world where resistances are required to be accounted for, the result is an RLC type of circuit for further analysis. The exact topology of the circuit can have different forms from the simple series connection of the resistors, inductors and capacitors (or simple three parallel connections) lead to quite complex seriesparallel connections of many multiple devices analysis. The basic result is that most circuits can be described in "2nd order liner equations" and solved quite readily (Note: It does not say 'easily solved').
The addition of the resistor term in the RLC results in a continuous 'loss of electrical energy' in the circuit, if it is not resupplied by the source. The rate of loss establishes a 'Q factor' for the circuit. We will leave that for you study on your own.
The 'tuned circuit' is used widely in electronics. Oscillators, filters [bandpass filter, bandstop filter, lowpass filter or highpass filter], and any 'tuning circuit' all use the resonance effect to achieve a desired result. You can study online or in books on these topics to get at whatever level of understanding you desire.
We suggest a mathematics review using our reference page ~ Mathematics Reference Page.
NOTE: The equations shown on this page are presented by using "Latex" and the equation writing capabilities from the Code Cogs Web Site. Images are then stored "locally" to allow proper HTML5 validation and display.
Page Navigation:
Frequency, Wavelength & Bands
 Ohm's Law
 Capacitance
 Inductance
 Resonance
Web Site Contact: W8QQQ at arrl.net
Page Last Updated: 04Sep2018
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